Non-obstructing clot/thrombus in the basilar artery

Methemoglobin clot is visualized medially within a focal aneurysmal dilatation of the basilar artery on axial and coronal T1-weighted scans. Evaluation of axial T2-weighted and DWI scans reveals a small acute infarct, located within the brainstem just medial to the clot, and presumed to be secondary to occlusion of small paramedian penetrating branches from the […] [...]

Obstructive hydrocephalus, extraventricular, due to meningitis

The ventricles are prominent, with a generalized absence of sulci. There is abnormal high signal intensity on the FLAIR scans in the immediate periventricular region, consistent with interstitial edema due to increased ventricular pressure. On the post-contrast scans there is diffuse mild enhancement of the leptomeninges, consistent with meningitis. Part of the on-line supplement to […] [...]

Occipital lobe hematoma

Occipital lobe hematoma, in an elderly patient with prominent dilated perivascular spaces and extensive cerebral amyloid angiopathy (chronic microbleeds). A large left-sided parenchymal hemorrhage is seen on CT and MR. The CT was acquired 6 days prior to the MR exam. On MR, there is only mild accompanying vasogenic edema (seen best on the T2-weighted […] [...]

Olfactory groove meningioma

A large, midline, extraaxial lesion is noted within the low frontal region, with homogeneous enhancement on post-contrast coronal and axial images. On the former, the lesion is noted to extend inferiorly to the region of the left olfactory bulb. Part of the on-line supplement to Neuroradiology – The Essentials with MR and CT (© 2015) [...]

Oligodendroglioma, WHO grade II

A mass lesion is noted on the right, in the posterior frontal lobe, somewhat peripherally located and expansile in nature. The lesion is hyperintense on T2-weighted scans, and fairly homogeneous in nature. There was no abnormal contrast enhancement (image not shown). In neoplastic disease, choline is increased and NAA decreased, relative to normal brain, a […] [...]

Pilocytic astrocytoma

A large, relatively well-circumscribed, mass lesion is seen involving the right cerebellum in this 3-year old child. There is marked compression of the fourth ventricle and midbrain, with midline shift. There is a large solid enhancing component medially, with a cystic component laterally and enhancement as well of the cyst wall. Note that the cystic […] [...]

Pineal parenchymal tumor (WHO grade III)

An enhancing mass is noted with its epicenter in the region of the pineal gland. The ventricular system is enlarged, due to compression of the cerebral aqueduct. Hemorrhage is common with pineal parenchymal tumors, and is visualized in the current case (specifically hemosiderin, with low signal intensity) on the T2 FSE and DWI scans, but […] [...]

Pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage

The sella is expanded by a mass lesion, which extends superiorly to compress the optic chiasm. There is extensive hemorrhage therein, representing a combination of intracellular and extracellular methemoglobin. Note post-contrast the enhanced pituitary infundibulum, draped over the left side of the mass. The coronal scan on the far right of the figure was obtained […] [...]

Schwannoma at C3-4 on the left, within the neural foramen and compressing the cord

An enhancing mass lesion is seen, centered within the neural foramen – the latter is enlarged, indicating that the lesion is long standing in nature. There is marked cord compression, with abnormal high signal intensity within the cord on the T2-weighted exam, indicative of either gliosis or edema. The patient presented clinically with numbness in […] [...]

Recurrent epidermoid

On the FLAIR scan there is a region of abnormal signal intensity, isointense to brain, to the right of the medulla. This could be related to abnormal soft tissue, or simply reflect artifact due to CSF pulsation. On the FSE T2-weighted scan, and the post-contrast T1-weighted scan, the question of subtle abnormal soft tissue in […] [...]

Skull hemangioma, CT

A solitary, sharply marginated, expansile lesion with a sunburst pattern (on images reconstructed with a bone algorithm) is visualized on unenhanced CT. The inner and outer tables of the skull are intact, with the outer table substantially expanded (and the inner table relatively unaffected). The MR in this patient is presented in a separate accompanying […] [...]

Skull hemangioma, MR

A large, well defined, expansile diploic space lesion is noted involving the left frontal bone, with slight hypo- and hyperintensity relative to brain on T1- and T2-weighted images. There is prominent enhancement, due to the presence of abundant vessels therein, which microscopically can be capillary, cavernous, or mixed in type. Part of the on-line supplement […] [...]

Tethered cord

The cord extends to the sacral region, without a change in caliber or distinct conus. The cord ends in a lipoma, with tethering posteriorly. (Case provided courtesy of Reto Sutter, MD, Leitender Arzt, Radiologie, Uniklinik Balgrist, Zürich) Part of the on-line supplement to Neuroradiology – The Essentials with MR and CT (© 2015) [...]

Small acute cerebellar infarct

Small acute cerebellar infarct, superior cerebellar artery (SCA) distribution. A portion of the SCA territory is noted to be involved on the left, with abnormal high signal intensity on both T2- and diffusion weighted scans. The high signal intensity on T2-weighted scans denotes vasogenic edema, with the findings on DWI – specifically restricted diffusion, confirmed […] [...]

Small acute left MCA infarct

Small acute left MCA infarct, with severe chronic small vessel white matter ischemic disease. The CT reveals only severe, bilateral, chronic ischemic disease (with abnormal low attenuation), which is also well seen on the FLAIR scan from the MR exam (with abnormal high signal intensity). The diffusion weighted scan enables detection of a small acute […] [...]

Small cavernous malformation

Small cavernous malformation, best visualized on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Detection of this small, medial, posterior frontal cavernous malformation is poorest on FLAIR, of the presented scans, and best on SWI. Multiple research articles in the scientific literature have shown that SWI is more sensitive for detection of cerebral cavernous malformations than T2-weighted gradient echo […] [...]

Small solid lateral cerebellar hemangioblastoma, in a patient with von Hippel Lindau syndrome

Small solid lateral cerebellar hemangioblastoma, in a patient with von Hippel Lindau syndrome. A small nodular enhancing lesion, with mild surrounding vasogenic edema, is noted in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The appearance on imaging is not specific for any one diagnosis, with metastatic disease likely first in terms of differential diagnosis, in the absence of […] [...]

Small solid superior cerebellar hemangioblastoma

Small solid superior cerebellar hemangioblastoma on MR, with perfusion imaging. Very high CBV is noted in a small nodular enhancing lesion, consistent with a hemangioblastoma, in this 41 year old patient with von Hippel Lindau syndrome and multiple other parenchymal lesions. Although 60% of hemangioblastomas of the brain are cystic, with a mural nodule, 40% […] [...]

Subacute parenchymal hemorrhage

A small fluid collection is noted in the superior left thalamus, with a complete hemosiderin rim demonstrated on the coronal T2* GRE scan. This 50 year old patient presented with a hypertensive hemorrhage on CT in the left thalamus 2 months prior to the MR. The residual of such bleeds on MR can be as […] [...]

Subacute PICA infarct

There is abnormal high signal intensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted axial scans in the left PICA territory. The ADC map however does not demonstrate restricted diffusion, thus identifying the findings on DWI to represent “T2 shine through”. The absence of a true diffusion change dates the infarct to be more than 1 week old, thus […] [...]

Subacute PICA infarct (including AICA)

Subacute PICA infarct, which also includes the AICA territory. Sagittal and axial CT sections reveal abnormal low attenuation in both the PICA and AICA territories (the inferior cerebellum). Note that the tonsil is involved (visualized on the axial CT exam), which is part of the PICA territory. On MR, there is abnormal high and low […] [...]

Superior cerebellar artery aneurysm

A predominantly hyperintense lesion is noted on the right, anterior to the pons, causing mild adjacent deformity. Additional scans identify the abnormal high signal intensity to represent methemoglobin, in a SCA aneurysm that is predominantly thrombosed and has only a small residual patent component (medially). The TOF exams, with thick coronal and axial MIPs illustrated, […] [...]

Temporal evolution of a cerebral hematoma on CT

The patient presented with trauma from a fall, with the first scan shown 5 days after hospitalization. The follow-up scan was obtained a month later. A large left acute (hyperdense) occipital hematoma is noted with moderate surrounding vasogenic edema (hypodense). A month later there has been evolution of the hematoma in its CT appearance, with […] [...]

Tentorial meningioma

A large extra-axial mass lesion is seen with a broad base along the tentorium. Note the compression of the cerebral peduncles, best seen on the axial exam. A classic finding is also seen, for the diagnosis of a meningioma, specifically a CSF cleft circumferential to the lesion (well visualized on the axial scan). Such a […] [...]

Thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus with resultant parenchymal hemorrhage

Axial and coronal enhanced CT scans reveal parenchymal hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Also note the empty delta sign on the coronal scan, consistent with thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus. The hemorrhage and accompanying vasogenic edema are well seen on the T2-weighted GRE scan, with the low signal intensity consistent with either deoxyhemoglobin […] [...]

Utility of B0 images and BLADE, for T2-weighted scans in uncooperative patients

A multishot DWI with b=1000 reveals an infarct involving the left caudate head that age wise is < 7-10 days (demonstrating restricted diffusion, which was confirmed on the ADC map, not show). The b=0 image is slightly less blurred, on the basis of patient motion, given that this is a single image acquisition, as opposed […] [...]


On the T2-weighted scan there is subtle abnormal signal intensity (slightly less than normal CSF) in the posterior portion of the atria of the lateral ventricles. Abnormal high signal intensity (restricted diffusion) is present in this area on the diffusion-weighted scan, with ependymal enhancement post-contrast, both findings consistent with infection. Part of the on-line supplement […] [...]

Proliferative myositis

  Clinical History: A 63-year old woman presents with an asymptomatic mass inferior to the right inguinal area for 10 days   Diagnosis: Proliferative myositis   MR Technique: Imaging of the right lower extremity was performed on a 3T MR system (Siemens Skyra). (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38ms) and (B) axial T2-weighted TSE with […] [...]

Right renal angiomyolipoma

Clinical History: 59-year old woman with right lower back pain for more than one year   Diagnosis: Right renal angiomyolipoma   MR Technique: Upper abdominal imaging was performed on a 3T MR system. (A, B) Axial T1-weighted VIBE in- and out-of-phase (TR/TE 3.88/1.27ms), and (C) axial FS T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 5814/78ms, with respiratory triggering) scans […] [...]

Left thigh schwannoma

  Clinical History: 31-year old woman with left foot numbness and pain for 6 months   Diagnosis: Left thigh schwannoma   MR Technique: Imaging of the left lower extremity was performed on a 3T MR system. (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38ms), (B) sagittal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38), (C) axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 500/11) and […] [...]

Chronic osteomyelitis of the left femur

  Clinical History: An 11-year old boy with left thigh pain for 3 days   Diagnosis: Chronic osteomyelitis of the left femur   MR Technique: Imaging of the left lower extremity was performed on a 3T (Skyra) MR system. (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38ms), (B) sagittal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 2800/38), (C) axial T1-weighted TSE […] [...]

Prostatic sarcoma

        Clinical History: 25-year old man with dysuria for 3 weeks   Diagnosis: Prostatic sarcoma   MR Technique: Prostatic imaging was performed on a 3T MR system. (A) Sagittal T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 7500/104ms), (B) coronal T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 7354/104ms), and (C) axial T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 7440/101) were acquired prior to the administration […] [...]

Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast (CSPB)

    Clinical history: 32-year old woman with a right breast mass   Diagnosis: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast (CSPB)   Imaging techniques: Non-contrast MR imaging of the bilateral breasts was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens). (A) Axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 626/8.1), (B) axial T2-weighted TSE with Dixon fat suppression (TR/TE 3700/101ms), […] [...]

Left thigh myxofibrosarcoma

  Clinical history: 52-year old man with left thigh mass   Diagnosis: Myxofibrosarcoma   Imaging techniques: Imaging of the left thigh was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens) and 64-MDCT (GE). (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38), (B) sagittal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38ms), (C) axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 700/11ms), and (D) T2-weighted TSE […] [...]

Multiple myeloma

  Clinical History: 56-year old woman with right leg pain for 10 months   Diagnosis: Multiple myeloma   MR Technique: Imaging of the right lower extremity was performed on a 3T MR system. (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38ms), (B) sagittal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38), (C) axial T1-weighted TSE, and (D) axial T2-weighted TSE with […] [...]

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

  Clinical history: 50-year old man with progressively enlarging left upper arm mass for one year   Diagnosis: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans   Imaging techniques: Imaging of the left upper arm was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens). (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 2734/38), (B) axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 500/12ms), and (C) axial T2-weighted TSE […] [...]

Intramuscular hemangioma

  Clinical History: 2-year old boy with an asymptomatic mass in his left buttock Diagnosis: Intramuscular hemangioma MR Technique: Imaging of the pelvis was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens). (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 4000/78ms), (B) axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 450/18ms), (C) axial FS T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 2500/84ms), and (D) T2-weighted TIRM […] [...]

Thoracic spine schwannoma

  Clinical History: 28-year old woman with chest and upper back pain for 3 months Diagnosis: Thoracic spine schwannoma  MR Technique: Imaging of the thoracic spine was performed on a 3T MR system. (A) Sagittal T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 650/8.1ms), (B) sagittal T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 2000/97), (C) sagittal T2-weighted TSE images with Dixon fat suppression (TR/TE2500/101), […] [...]

Right thigh rhabdomyosarcoma

  Clinical history: 44-year old man with progressively enlarging right thigh mass Diagnosis: Rhabdomyosarcoma Imaging techniques: Imaging of the right thigh was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens). (A) Coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38), (B) sagittal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 3000/38ms), (C) axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 700/12ms), and (D) T2-weighted TSE images with Dixon […] [...]


    Clinical history: 51-year old woman with episodic seizures for 20 years Diagnosis: Oligodendroglioma (WHO grade II) Imaging techniques: (A) Sagittal T1-weighted TIRM*(TR/TE 2000/9ms), (B) axial T1-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 2000/9ms), (C) axial T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 4800/99ms), (D) axial T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 8500/85ms), and (E) coronal T2-weighted TIRM (TR/TE 8500/85ms) images were acquired along with […] [...]

Giant cell tumor

  Clinical History: 40 year old man with left knee pain for three months Diagnosis: Giant cell tumor involving the proximal tibia with intratumoral hemorrhage MR Technique: Knee imaging was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens). (A) Axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 700/12ms) images and (B) axial T2-weighted TSE images with Dixon fat suppression […] [...]

Eosinophilic granuloma

Clinical History: 12 year old boy with back pain limiting activities of daily living Diagnosis: Thoracic vertebral eosinophilic granuloma MR Technique: Thoracic spine imaging was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens). (A) Sagittal T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 650/8.1ms) and (B) T2-weighted TSE (TR/TE 2000/97ms) images were acquired. Contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted (C) and coronal T1-weighted […] [...]

Intermuscular Lipoma

Clinical History: 46 year old woman with a progressively enlarging right thigh mass Diagnosis: Intermuscular lipoma of the anterior right thigh MR Technique: Imaging of the right thigh was performed on a 3T MR system (Skyra, Siemens). (A) Axial T1-weighted TSE (TR/TE 700/11ms) and (B, C) axial T2-weighted TSE water/fat-images obtained with the Dixon fat […] [...]

Burkitt lymphoma

An eight year old boy [...]

Colloid cyst

A 27-year-old woman who began to have headaches over the past 2 months, and then presented with significant nausea, vomiting, and lethargy [...]

Dandy-Walker variant

A 29 year old man with Down’s syndrome, and no acute clinical symptomatology relevant to the imaging findings. [...]

Degeneration (Lumbar)

A 76 year old man with advanced degenerative spine disease [...]


A 53-year-old woman complaining of severe left leg pain for several months [...]

Metastasis (carcinoma of prostate)

This 64 year old man is status post prostatectomy with positive margins and subsequent local regional recurrence, treated with external beam radiation therapy, with further recurrence and subsequent development of disseminated disease. [...]

Multiple chronic compression deformities

An unfortunate 83-year-old lady with severe degenerative spine disease, a history of multiple compression fractures and prior vertebroplasty of L2, presenting once again with intractable back pain [...]


A 15 month old female infant. [...]

Silicone lymphadenopathy

A 69 year old female patient with subcutaneous mastectomy and inlay-reconstruction due to invasive lobular carcinoma on the right side ten years ago, presenting now for follow up MR-mammography. The patient was free of complaints. An external rupture of the silicon-inlay was known. [...]

Invasive lobular carcinoma

A 41 year old female patient presented with a new palpable mass in the left upper lateral quadrant. In regards to the patient’s family history, her mother developed breast cancer at 40 years of age, her sister at 38 years of age and her aunt at 30 years of age. On the mammogram, extensive dense breast parenchyma was noted on both sides, corresponding to an ACR4 classification, and thus a limited evaluation. On the basis of this exam alone, no tumor or architectural disorder could be detected. Due to the patient’s family history additional MR-Mammography was performed for further evaluation. [...]

Intraductal papillary carcinoma

A 69 year old female patient with hemorrhagic nipple discharge on the left side. Clinical assessment revealed no palpable mass, and no signs of inflammation. Mammography and ultrasound were within normal limits. [...]

Intraductal papilloma

A 52 year old female patient with right sided nipple discharge. The mammogram was classified as ACR4 without any abnormal findings. [...]

Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is highly aggressive, rare, and has a strong male preponderance. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, has also been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma. The immunodeficiency-associated variant of this tumor is most common in HIV positive patients, but can also be seen in any immunosuppressed patient. It accounts for 30-40% of NHL in HIV patients, and is one of the AIDS defining diseases, being associated with the initial disease presentation. [...]

Acute and chronic vertebral compression fractures

An 83 year old woman with back pain. [...]

C3 burst fracture

A 77 year-old woman seen in the emergency room, following trauma, with cervical pain but no neurologic deficit. [...]

Oligodendroglioma (WHO grade II)

A 30 year old man referred to Neurosurgery for a mass lesion (of the brain) revealed by imaging at an outside hospital. [...]

Medulloblastoma (posterior fossa PNET)

A 7 year-old boy who presents with nausea and vomiting. [...]

Disk space infection (L2-3)

A 70 year-old woman with chronic kidney disease, on IV antibiotics for osteomyelitis. [...]

Metastasis (breast carcinoma)

A 64 year-old woman with a history of breast cancer, presenting with weakness [...]

Pituitary microadenoma (prolactinoma, treated)

A 31 year-old woman with long-standing infertility, who prior to treatment presented with galactorrhea, now on cabergoline. [...]

Pituitary macroadenoma, with invasion of the left cavernous sinus

A 58 year old woman presenting with a visual field defect (bitemporal hemianopsia) [...]

Parenchymal hemorrhage, late subacute

A 68 year-old woman several weeks following a stroke. [...]

Periventricular leukomalacia

A 3 year-old girl, product of in vitro fertilization (with a normal twin), delivered by c-section at 30 weeks. She is mildly developmentally delayed, with spastic diplegic/triplegic cerebral palsy. [...]

Metastases (renal cell, lumbar)

A 56 year-old man with back pain [...]

Cavernous malformation

A 60 year-old woman with myelopathic symptoms, status/post cervical decompression, with follow-up cervical MR revealing a lesion in the pons. [...]

Standardized Quality and Process Efficiency with High-Throughput MR Exams

Standardized Quality and Process Efficiency with High-Throughput MR Exams. MR 2015 Garmisch (Germany), 16th International MRI Symposium. January 30, 2015. [...]

Improving MR Joint Diagnostics with T1 Water Contrast Using a RESTORE Pulse

The article discusses technical considerations and various clinical applications of the DESS sequence. 3D DESS techniques have advantages in assessment of pediatric cartilage pathology including higher SNR, increased cartilage-to-fluid contrast and isotropic resolution, which helps to reduce partial volume effects. 3D DESS techniques are also of essential importance in the pediatric population due to the lack of ionizing radiation. [...]